A review article has been published on the plant-derived beta2 agonist higenamine. Higenamine, an ingredient that may be present in products distributed as natural dietary supplements, was placed on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) ban list in 2017. .. the paper’s authors warn of the risks of accidental doping, saying athletes could ingest norhydroxylamine without knowing it contains it.
This article outlines the results of a search of previously reported literature on higanese, with additional considerations based on the extracted literature. On the other hand, a note on the current status of norminamine as the background of the study is also helpful, so here we present the abstract including the first part.
Product labels may contain botanical names instead of banned ingredient names
Plants have long been one of the important seeds for drug discovery, and they are not only used in many folk remedies, but many Western medicines use plant-derived ingredients. In addition, the functions of various substances contained in plants remain to be discovered.
There are also reports of increased use of plant-based supplements (herbal supplements) by athletes. Phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids have the potential to improve athlete performance and recovery. However, the use of herbal supplements may also pose a risk of accidental stimulant use.
Not all supplements made with phytochemicals have the name of the compound on the product label. There have also been reports of using the name of the plant rather than the name of the compound.
For example, the World Anti-Doping Agency has placed the stimulant methylhexylamine (geranylamine) on its ban list. Methylhexylamine is a compound found in pelargonium and pelargonium in the Pelargonium family, but the product labels of supplements that use them seldom state that methylhexylamine contains methylhexylamine, while “pelargonium” is referred to by expressions such as “root extract.” describe. In recent years, several athletes have been identified as methylhexylamine positive during the Olympics.
Japanese researchers identify Higenamine as a compound with cardiotonic activity
Higenamine is an alkaloid that is structurally similar to epinephrine and norepinephrine and has beta2-receptor stimulatory effects. In 1976, it was isolated from Aconitum root and identified as a cardiac substance. The extract has been used as a folk remedy in China and Japan. It is also used in Europe and North America as an anti-obesity and performance-enhancing supplement.
According to a Dutch study, 28 of 416 supplements analyzed between 2013 and 2018 contained chitin. This comes after caffeine, synephrine (an alkaloid), sildenafil (a Viagra for ED), and icariin (a flavonoid) in the inappropriate use of supplements Fifth ingredient (counterfeit). It is a frequently detected component.
Heart rate and cardiac output increased 2 minutes after ingestion of nocresolamine. As a result, blood pressure rises and can lead to cardiac arrhythmias. Due to this effect, WADA added norsine to its ban list in 2017. Currently, no western medicine uses norsin, but it is widely used in supplements. According to a study reported in 2019, chitinamine was detected in 24 supplement products, most of which claimed weight loss and energy-boosting effects.
Risk Assessment of Hireparin-Containing Plants
Based on the above, the authors of this article conducted the following literature review to examine the risks of stimulant use of normoxamin.
PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Web of Science were used for literature searches, which were conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. As key words, higenamine in supplements, detection of demethylation potion, dehydration potion in plants, etc. are set. The final search was conducted on November 10, 2021.
4,008 hits in primary searches. A total of 137 studies were reviewed after deduplication, article titles, abstract-based screening, and full-text review. Since then, the paper has added detailed consideration of higenamine-containing plants, such as Aconitum, based on reports of extraction.
Higenamine is highly concentrated in lotus and nandina
Here, we will only cover the part that summarizes the risk assessment.
First, plant comparison studies have shown that lotus root has a higher concentration of nocresolamine than other plants. It was also found that Nantian bamboo leaves were also highly concentrated. Urine samples collected after ingestion of throat lozenges containing Nandina fruit contained 0.2-0.4 ng/mL chitin. On the other hand, there are no pharmacokinetic studies on Nandina products, the authors say, “Given that Nandina is also used to treat cough and asthma, their safety and risk. More research is needed to clarify gender.” ”
The paper concluded that “Unintentional doping has become a serious and important scientific and societal challenge over the past two decades. The main cause of accidental doping is food containing prohibited compounds. It is a Supplementation. In addition to alerting athletes, thorough analysis and control of the ingredients of supplements is essential to prevent unintentional doping. Chitosan is a long-term human use of many folk medicines and supplements. The use and levels of chitosan are lacking in commercial products Information labels. Further research is important to ensure that herbal supplements can be used safely by athletes.” ..
The original title was “Deacetaminophen in Plants as a Source of Unintentional Stimulants”.[植物（巴塞尔）。2022 年 1 月 27 日；11 (3): 354]
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